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Fractional Ownership vs Joint Ownership in Real Estate

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fractional ownership vs joint ownership

In the Indian real estate market, fractional ownership has become more and more popular as an investment option in recent years (fractional ownership vs joint ownership). Knight Frank predicts that the fractional ownership market in India is set to grow significantly, reaching USD 8.9 billion in 2021 from USD 5.4 billion in 2020. 

This growth is expected to occur at a compound annual growth rate of 10.5%. These statistics demonstrate the increasing popularity and feasibility of fractional ownership as an investment choice in the Indian real estate market. With a focus on highlighting the key differences between fractional ownership vs joint ownership, this article attempts to offer a thorough analysis.

What is Fractional Ownership?

In the world of real estate, fractional ownership refers to a structure in which multiple people jointly own a property, with each person owning a portion of the total. With this idea, investors can own a piece of luxury homes or commercial real estate without having to pay the entire price. This way, they can share the financial load with other co-owners and yet benefit from ownership and possible returns.

What is Joint Ownership?

In real estate, joint ownership is a legal structure in which two or more people jointly own a property with equal rights and responsibilities. With this type of ownership, co-owners can jointly own a piece of real estate while equally splitting the costs, rewards, and duties.

Each co-owner in a joint tenancy has an undivided stake in the property, as well as the right of survivorship, which means that in the event of one owner’s death, the remaining owner(s) will immediately inherit that owner’s part. 

Exploring the Differences Between Joint and Fractional Ownership 

Here are the differences between fractional ownership vs joint ownership based on different categories: 

Ownership Structure

  • Fractional Ownership: This form of ownership enables multiple individuals to collectively possess a property, granting them a share or portion of the asset. This approach has become increasingly popular in the real estate industry, particularly in India. It allows investors to combine their resources and acquire high-value properties that may have been unaffordable for them individually. 

There is a significant rise in fractional ownership in India, with a growing number of investors opting for this unique ownership structure.

  • Joint Ownership: Conversely, joint ownership pertains to the simultaneous ownership of property rights by multiple individuals. Under this approach, co-owners frequently divide ownership rights and obligations evenly. 

Despite the rise of fractional ownership as a potential challenge to traditional joint ownership, it is especially prevalent in markets with valuable assets and a growing number of investors.

Entry Barriers

  • Fractional Ownership: One advantage of fractional ownership compared to full ownership is the lower entry barrier it offers. This approach allows a broader range of investors to participate in high-value assets as it requires a smaller financial commitment. Industry data indicates that fractional ownership has gained popularity among high-net-worth individuals (HNIs) and retail investors in India due to its decreasing entry barrier.
  • Joint Ownership: The requirements for joint ownership can vary depending on the property and the agreement between co-owners. Typically, this strategy necessitates a full financial commitment from each owner, which may pose challenges for investors seeking to diversify their real estate portfolio without a substantial initial investment. Due to its reduced entrance hurdle, fractional ownership has become an increasingly attractive option for investors with limited budgets who want to enter the real estate market.

Management Responsibility

  • Fractional Ownership: Shared management responsibilities among co-owners are a key aspect of fractional ownership, which is facilitated by fractional ownership platforms (FOPs). Typically, investors collaborate on property management to reduce personal expenses and minimize inconveniences. Industry surveys highlight the effectiveness of fractional ownership systems in streamlining the management process, resulting in an enhanced ownership experience for investors.
  • Joint Ownership: When property is owned jointly, all maintenance and management obligations are divided among the co-owners. This approach requires complete agreement on all matters related to property, which may lead to disagreements and challenges in day-to-day operations. Although certain joint ownership options, such as the BHIVE initiative, may provide professional management services, the arrangement of co-owners sharing management responsibilities can pose logistical and decision-making difficulties.

Risk and Profit Sharing

  • Fractional Ownership: After deducting management fees, investors divide the risks and rewards in fractional ownership. This model allows for the distribution of rewards and risks based on the percentage of ownership held by each investor. Industry data suggests that investors seeking to broaden their real estate portfolio and minimize individual risk have been drawn to fractional ownership because of its risk-sharing aspect.
  • Joint Ownership: When multiple individuals own a business together, they divide both the profits and risks equally. Due to the equal ownership structure, investors may have limited flexibility in adjusting their risk exposure to align with their personal investing preferences. Investors might consider exploring fractional ownership as a flexible and diversified ownership model because of the risk-sharing dynamics of joint ownership.

Regulatory Environment

  • Fractional Ownership: Under the new MSM REIT framework, fractional ownership in India is regulated by the Securities and Exchange Board of India (SEBI). This official structure for fractional ownership in the real estate market is established by a governmental monitoring system, ensuring transparency and providing investor protection. Investor confidence has been strengthened by the regulatory framework surrounding fractional ownership, resulting in the gradual growth of this ownership model in India.
  • Joint Ownership: In markets with limited options, joint ownership may not be subject to the same level of legal regulation as fractional ownership. Co-owners may encounter a sense of uncertainty due to this regulatory gap, potentially impacting their rights and safeguards in real estate transactions and disputes. Investor perspectives and preferences have been influenced by the varying regulations surrounding joint and fractional ownership. Compliance with regulations plays a significant role in shaping ownership decisions.

Minimum Investment Size

  • Fractional Ownership: A broader range of investors can engage in fractional ownership as the minimum investment value typically ranges from Rs 10 to Rs 25 lakh. People can expand their financial portfolios due to the lower entry point. In the realm of real estate, fractional ownership involves a shared ownership arrangement for commercial properties. This allows investors to combine their capital for investments that would typically be unattainable for individual investors. 
  • Joint Ownership: The investment sizes for joint ownership may vary depending on the property and the agreement among co-owners. Compared to fractional ownership, this approach may require a higher initial investment. In the Indian real estate sector, joint ownership usually involves a Joint Development Agreement (JDA), where investors can contribute funds to the project and receive a share of the profits in return.

Professional Management

  • Fractional Ownership: Professional management services covering upkeep and facilities are provided by Fractional Ownership Platforms, offering a distinct approach to ownership. These systems ensure efficient property management and streamline the ownership process. Investors can enjoy the benefits of owning real estate without the burden of ongoing maintenance responsibilities.
  • Joint Ownership: In a joint ownership structure, co-owners share management responsibilities and may not have access to professional services. For an enhanced ownership experience, certain joint ownership options, like BHIVE’s project, provide expert management services.

Legal Aspects

  • Fractional Ownership: This type of ownership involves contracts that are clearly outlined, specifying the responsibilities, privileges, and structures of each investor. These legal documents ensure that the ownership arrangement is clear and transparent.
  • Joint Ownership: Co-owners share rights and obligations as part of their joint ownership. In order to minimize the chances of conflicts and misunderstandings among the owners, it is crucial to establish clear agreements.


Ultimately, there are clear benefits and challenges associated with fractional ownership vs joint ownership in the real estate market. Understanding the nuanced distinctions between various ownership styles is crucial for investors seeking to make informed market decisions. While joint ownership allows for equal profit-sharing and collaborative decision-making among co-owners, fractional ownership provides professional management services, lower entry requirements, and the opportunity for diversification.

Fractional ownership is gaining popularity, with the fractional ownership market projected to grow significantly from $5.4 billion in 2020 to $8.9 billion by 2025. This growth underscores the increasing appeal and potential of fractional ownership as an emerging investment model in the real estate sector, offering investors unique opportunities for shared ownership and diversified portfolios.

Investors should carefully consider their investing goals, risk tolerance, and preferences before selecting the ownership structure that aligns with their needs.For more blogs like these, you can visit our website at BHIVE.

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